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Paddy and Water Environment

Publisher Springer Berlin / Heidelberg
ISSN 1611-2490 (Print) 1611-2504 (Online)
Subject Collection Biomedical and Life Sciences
Subject Earth and Environmental Science, Life Sciences, Agriculture, Hydrogeology, Geoecology/Natural Processes, Monitoring/Environmental Analysis/Environmental Ecotoxicology, Soil Science & Conservation and Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution
SpringerLink Date Sunday, July 13, 2003

Abstracts of Recent Papers

  • Effects of controlled-release fertilizer on nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions during wheat-growing season: field and pot experiments -

    Abstract

    Outdoor pot and field experiments were conducted to study the effect of controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) on nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions and wheat yields during the 2011–2013. Three treatments, namely conventional N fertilizer (CF; urea and compound fertilizer, 300 kg N ha−1), CRF (210 kg N ha−1, which is 70% of the N applied in the CF treatment), and check (CK, 0 N), were applied in three replicates. The soil temperature, soil moisture, N uptake by wheat, wheat yield, and variations in NO3–N, NH4–N, N2O, and NO emissions were measured. Results showed that the average total N2O and NO emissions in the CRF treatment in the pot and field experiments decreased by 26.5 and 19.4%, respectively. The average N2O and NO emission factors decreased by 32.1 and 24.8%, respectively, compared with the CF treatment. However, the CRF wheat yields were insignificantly lower than those from the CF treatment. Results indicated that CRF could improve the efficiency of fertilizer N use, reduce labor cost, and increase economic benefit without sacrificing the yield.

  • Correction to: A new and simple method for measuring in situ field-saturated hydraulic conductivity using a falling-head single cylinder -

    Abstract

    In the original publication of this article, the equation 12 had a typographical error and has been incorrectly published online. Now the correct equation has been provided in this erratum.

  • Doing what with whom? Stakeholder analysis in a large transdisciplinary research project in South-East Asia -

    Abstract

    The transdisciplinary research project LEGATO analysed the combined generation of provisioning, regulating and cultural ecosystem services in wet rice agriculture in South-East Asia and applied ecological engineering to future-proof it against global change and environmental pollution challenges. Due to its transdisciplinary character and the sheer size, a systematic stakeholder involvement was inevitable. Starting with stakeholder identification by snowballing from a limited number of contacts, we derived a multi-level stakeholder analysis and tried to involve those identified as relevant. Applying different means and aiming at different depth of involvement, the effort can be judged successful. The paper describes the methods used to identify and classify stakeholders, and key elements of the stakeholder management, guided by the BiodivERsA Stakeholder Activation Handbook. While on the local level, farmers and extension workers turned out to be influential and interested stakeholders in both countries, as well as local (PH) or provincial authorities (VN), differences were manifest on higher levels due to the divergent institutional setting. National-level agents were hard to get interested in both countries, and influential agents along the production chain, including middle men, were not really interested in collaboration.

  • Short-term daily forecasting of crop evapotranspiration of rice using public weather forecasts -

    Abstract

    Accurate forecasts of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET c ) are essential for real-time irrigation management and water resource allocation. This paper presents a method for the short-term forecasting of ET c using a single-crop coefficient approach and public weather forecasts. Temperature forecasts with a 7-day lead time in 2013–2015 were retrieved and entered into a calibrated Hargreaves–Samani model to compute daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0) forecasts, while crop coefficient (K c ) empirical values were estimated from both observed ET c value and calculated ET0 values using the Penman–Monteith equation for the period of 2010–2012. Daily ET c forecasts of irrigated double-cropping rice were determined for three growing seasons during the period of 2013–2015 and were compared with ET c values measured by the weighing lysimeters at the Jiangxi experimental irrigation station in southeastern China. During the early rice season, the average mean absolute error (MAE) and root-mean-square-error (RMSE) values of ET c forecasts ranged from 0.95 to 1.06 mm day−1 and from 1.18 to 1.31 mm day−1, respectively, and the average correlation coefficient (R) ranged from 0.39 to 0.54; for late rice, the average MAE and RMSE values ranged from 1.01 to 1.09 mm day−1 and from 1.32 to 1.40 mm day−1, respectively, and the average R value ranged from 0.54 to 0.58. There could be three factors responsible for errors in ET c forecasts, including temperature forecast errors, K c value errors and neglected meteorological variables in the HS model, including wind speed and relative humidity. In addition, ET c was more sensitive to changes in temperature than K c . The overall results indicated that it is appropriate to forecast ET c with the proposed model for real-time irrigation management and water resource allocation.

  • Water availability and state of water resources within water-economic basins in Kazakhstan -

    Abstract

    Water is one of the most important natural resources. The water availability and scarcity depend on various natural and anthropogenic factors. Based on generalization and analyses of the numerous cartographic materials, and long-term runoff data, the water-economic basins (WEBs) in Kazakhstan were classified in order to identify the basin affected by human activities the most, to show the dynamics of river runoff within Kazakhstan, as well as to estimate the demand for water resources in the WEBs. Additionally, the water availability in the WEBs was determined by share (%) of water resources (rivers, lakes, water reservoirs). The Zhaiyk-Caspian WEB has the highest share (94%) of river water. By water resource (43.8 km3), the Ertis WEB is the most water-rich basin. A significant anthropogenic transformation was observed in the Aral-Syrdarya and Esil WEBs. Both basins are characterized by a deteriorated water quality. Due to natural factors and human activities, the total runoff decreased by 39.4 km3/year (23 km3/year is transboundary and local runoff is 16.5 km3/year) since 1965. Water consumption has decreased to 57% due to reduction of irrigation areas and industrial activities. However, the water consumption has increased by 1.33 and 1.25 km3/year in communal services and other needs due to the population growth. The water demand in Zhaiyk-Caspian WEB is very high and estimated in crisis degree (fourth class). The Balkash-Alakol WEB is characterized by a critical degree of water demand and belongs to the third class of water demand.

  • Macropores regulate CO 2 behavior in an andisol soil -

    Abstract

    Macropores resulting from soil pedogenesis, biological activity, and agricultural practices play important roles in soil water, chemical and gas transport; however, seldom studies focus on the effect of soil macropores on CO2 behavior. In this study, a 150-day soil column incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the CO2 behavior in a homogeneous soil column and a soil column with an artificial macropore, which have the same total porosity. The results showed that the cumulative CO2 fluxes observed in the soil with a macropore (57.2 g m−2) were higher than those in the homogeneous soil (52.7 g m−2). The soil cumulative CO2 fluxes measured using column incubation can fit the kinetic model, and a higher carbon mineralization rate in the soil with the macropore was found. The results of the incubation experiment also suggest that macropore increased the gas diffusivities, and thus decreased the CO2 concentrations in the soil profile. This study proposed a simulation experiment and quantified the effect of macropore on soil CO2 behavior, which could help to understand the mechanism of CO2 emission from soil with macropores especially caused by agricultural practices.

  • Effect of Si soil amendments on As, Cd, and Pb bioavailability in contaminated paddy soils -

    Abstract

    Numerous greenhouse and laboratory experiments have shown that the application of Si-rich materials may affect the mobility and transport of hazardous elements in the soil–plant system. The effects of three types of Si-based soil amendments on As, Cd, and Pb in paddy soil and their translocation into the rice roots, leaves, and grain were evaluated in four field tests. The Si-based soil amendments had positive influence on the rice productivity and crop quality: increased yield and reduced the total content of pollutants in leaves and grain by 2.2–54.0% for As, 11.4–51.9% for Cd, and 3.2–51.4% for Pb. The rice yield was mostly related to the water-extractable monosilicic acid from fresh soil sample (r = 0.60–0.96) as compared with the 0.1 M HCl-, 0.01 M CaCl2- or 0.5 M acetic acid-extractable Si from dry soil sample. Several mechanisms were proposed to be responsible for the Si-material-assisted reduction in the soil contaminant mobility: (a) pollutant sorption by the Si material applied; (b) reaction of the newly formed monosilicic acid with pollutants followed the sorption or precipitation of the silicates on soil particles; (c) primary sorption of newly formed monosilicic acid by soil solid components and then interaction between the sorbed monosilicic acid and pollutants. Additional plant Si nutrition activated physiological mechanism of reduction in the root-to-grain transport of the hazardous elements. Physiological mechanisms were more significant than soil mechanisms in decreasing grain accumulation of the tested hazardous elements under application of the Si-rich soil amendments.

  • The LEGATO cross-disciplinary integrated ecosystem service research framework: an example of integrating research results from the analysis of global change impacts and the social, cultural and economic system dynamics of irrigated rice production -

    Abstract

    In a cross-disciplinary project (LEGATO) combining inter- and transdisciplinary methods, we quantify the dependency of rice-dominated socio-ecological systems on ecosystem functions (ESF) and the ecosystem services (ESS) the integrated system provides. In the collaboration of a large team including geo- and bioscientists, economists, political and cultural scientists, the mutual influences of the biological, climate and soil conditions of the agricultural area and its surrounding natural landscape have been analysed. One focus was on sociocultural and economic backgrounds, another on local as well as regional land use intensity and biodiversity, and the potential impacts of future climate and land use change. LEGATO analysed characteristic elements of three service strands defined by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA): (a) provisioning services: nutrient cycling and crop production; (b) regulating services: biocontrol and pollination; and (c) cultural services: cultural identity and aesthetics. However, in line with much of the current ESS literature, what the MA called supporting services is treated as ESF within LEGATO. As a core output, LEGATO developed generally applicable principles of ecological engineering (EE), suitable for application in the context of future climate and land use change. EE is an emerging discipline, concerned with the design, monitoring and construction of ecosystems and aims at developing strategies to optimise ecosystem services through exploiting natural regulation mechanisms instead of suppressing them. Along these lines LEGATO also aims to create the knowledge base for decision-making for sustainable land management and livelihoods, including the provision of the corresponding governance and management strategies, technologies and system solutions.

  • Analysis of hydrological drought characteristics using copula function approach -

    Abstract

    Drought is a natural phenomenon which starts with decreased precipitation and can disrupt the environmental systems by changing the hydrological cycle. This is more conspicuous in hydrological drought. In analysis of hydrological drought, two factors of severity (intensity) and duration play eminent role. These characteristics are highly related and therefore their combined analysis contributes to better understanding of the drought situation. In this research, by using 40-year (1974–2014) daily discharge data of Tajan River, located in Mazandaran province, Iran, and low-flow indices, the best evaluation index of hydrological drought was determined and 10 past hydrological drought events in the region were identified. Then, the best statistical distribution of both drought variables (duration and severity) was selected, based on the goodness-of-fit tests. Five copula functions were fitted to the data. Results showed that Galambos function with the highest maximum log-likelihood (− 8.934) was selected as the best copula function. Results of the bivariate (duration and severity) statistical distribution could be used to analyze the probability of hydrological drought in the region. This bivariate and conditional probability for the worst drought, with duration of 5 months and severity of 0.32, was 6.1 and 28.5%, respectively.

  • Leaf litter decomposition and diversity of arthropod decomposers in tropical Muyong forest in Banaue, Philippines -

    Abstract

    The Muyong forest, an indigenous secondary forest in Banaue, Ifugao, Philippines, plays a crucial role in the Muyong–Payoh system, a continuum of secondary forest and rice terrace, of the Banaue rice terraces by providing water and nutrients to the rice plants in the Payoh terraces. In recent decades, the planting of introduced tree species in the Muyong forest has threatened the sustainable provision of ecosystem services such as water balance and nutrient cycling. To further understand nutrient cycling in the Muyong–Payoh systems, this study was conducted in Poitan, Banaue, Ifugao to gather preliminary baseline data on floral diversity, leaf litterfall rate, leaf litter decomposition rate, and diversity and succession of arthropods in decomposing leaf litter in a Muyong forest. Vegetation analysis was done by identifying and describing the trees growing inside the five 10 m × 10 m quadrat sampling plots. Monthly leaf litter fall was collected in 1 m × 1 m litter traps, and the dry weight was determined after oven-drying at 65 °C for 48 h. Leaf litter decomposition experiment was established by laying out 12 nylon mesh bags containing fresh leaf litter in each of the four sites on the forest floor and one bag was retrieved every month to determine the change in dry weight of the leaf litter. Six bulk soil samples were collected from the Muyong forest floor and analyzed for organic matter, pH, available P and exchangeable K. Fresh leaf litter samples were analyzed for total N, P and K contents. Arthropods in the collected decomposing leaf litter were extracted using Berlese funnel and later identified up to families level using arthropod taxonomic key. The diversity of plants in the Muyong forest includes thirty-eight tree species belonging to 19 families dominated by indigenous tree species. Results showed that the monthly leaf litter fall was higher during the dry months of March to May and lower during the wet months. The estimated total leaf litter fall in Muyong forest was comparable to published litter fall from tropical secondary forests. The N, P and K contents of fresh leaf litter range from 1.0 to 1.2, 0.11 and 0.40%, respectively. The first month of decomposition has the fastest rate while the decomposition rate during the next 4 months ranged from 0.125 to 0.251. Complete decomposition or mass lost in the leaf litter in the Muyong forest took place within 5 months. The soil arthropods identified in the decomposing leaf litter were composed of 13 orders and 28 families. Majority of the collected arthropods were insects while other species including mites, spiders, millipedes and sowbugs were also present. Detrivore and fungivore Families were found to be dominant in the decomposing leaf litter. Moreover, the composition and succession of arthropod decomposer community varied in the three sampling methods and with the changing quality of the litter material as decomposition progressed. The wide diversity and succession of leaf litter decomposers consisting of detritivores, predators, fungivore and herbivore coupled with abundant rainfall and warm temperature are the two main factors that contribute to the fast rate of leaf litter decomposition and nutrient turn over in the Muyong forest. Thus, the Muyong forest can sustain the productivity of rice planted in the adjoining downstream Payoh terraces. Hence, the conservation and management of the Muyong forest is critical in maintaining the ecological functions of the Muyong–Payoh continuum.