Instruction for Authors

Description
The journal Paddy and Water Environment aims to advance the science and technology of water and environment-related disciplines in paddy-farming. The scope extends broadly to paddy-farming related scientific and technological aspects of agricultural engineering such as irrigation and drainage, soil and water conservation, land and water resources management, paddy multi-functionality, agricultural policy, regional planning, bioenvironmental systems, and ecological conservation and restoration in paddy farming regions.

The Editor-in-Chief is Dr. Masaru Mizoguchi, Professor of University of Tokyo, Japan

Aims and scope
The aim of Paddy and Water Environment is to advance the science and technology of water and environment related disciplines in paddy-farming. The scope includes the paddy-farming related scientific and technological aspects in agricultural engineering such as irrigation and drainage, soil and water conservation, land and water resources management, paddy multi-functionality, agricultural policy, regional planning, bioenvironmental systems, and ecological conservation and restoration in paddy farming regions.

Manuscript Submission
Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before; that it is not under consideration for publication anywhere else; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities – tacitly or explicitly – at the institute where the work has been carried out. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Permissions
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

Online Submission
Authors should submit their manuscripts online. Electronic submission substantially reduces the editorial processing and reviewing times and shortens overall publication times. Open website of PWE supported by Springer http://www.springer.com/10333. Please follow the hyperlink “Submit online” on the right and upload all of your manuscript files following the instructions given on the screen.

You can directly make your submission as follows,

  1. Open URL of Editorial Manager  <https://www.editorialmanager.com/pawe>
  2. Click REGISTER and input personal information.
  3. Define user name and password, if you have not.
  4. In the top page, click SUBMIT A MANUSCRIPT.
  5. Input Username and Password then click Author Login.
  6. Click Submit New Manuscript.
  7. Choose category of your manuscript (Article, Review, Technical Report etc.)
  8. Continue input on the following steps.
  • Title
  • Authors
  • Specialized fields of your manuscript
  • Abstract
  • Reviewers recommendation(at least three)
  • Attach following files
    • Title page(one sheet)
    • Manuscript without authors
    • Figures
    • Tables

Specific remarks
Contact:

Yoshiyuki Shinogi, Ph. D.
Laboratory of Irrigation and Water Management,
Division of Bioproduction Environmental Sciences,
Department of Agro-environmetal Sciences,
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University
Phone; +81-92-642-2909, Fax;+81-92-642-2914,
e-mail;yshinogi@bpes.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Yoshiyuki Shinogi, Ph. D.

Laboratory of Irrigation and Water Management,
Division of Bioproduction Environmental Sciences,
Department of Agro-environmetal Sciences,
Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University
Phone; +81-92-642-2909, Fax;+81-92-642-2914,
e-mail: yshinogi@bpes.kyushu-u.ac.jp

Title Page
The title page should include:
The name(s) of the author(s)
A concise and informative title
The affiliation(s) and address(es) of the author(s)
The e-mail address, telephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author

Abstract
Please provide an abstract of 150 to 250 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

Keywords
Please provide 4 to 6 keywords which can be used for indexing purposes.

Types of papers

Articles
Articles cover full reports of research work that must be written following the guidelines described below with the minimum length required for a precise description and clear interpretation of theoretical or experimental work. Over 12 printed pages (36 template pages) will not be accepted.

Technical Reports
Technical reports must present original, practical information, preliminary or partial results of research, engineering applications in the field covered by Paddy and Water Environment. Over 12 printed pages (36 template pages) will not be accepted.

Reviews
Reviews dealing with all aspects of paddy- farming related scientific and technological interest in agricultural engineering will be accepted, and authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge are preferred. There is no prescribed layout for reviews, but the tables and manner of citations should conform to the guidelines for “Articles”. Over 12 printed pages will not be accepted.
Short communications
Short Communications are concise but complete explanation of limited investigation on the critical issues in the field of Paddy and Water Environment. Over 4 printed pages will not be accepted.

Text
Text Formatting
Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.
Use a normal, plain font (e.g., 10-point Times Roman) for text.
Use italics for emphasis.
Use the automatic page numbering function to number the pages.
Do not use field functions.
Use tab stops or other commands for indents, not the space bar.
Use the table function, not spreadsheets, to make tables.
Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.
Note: If you use Word 2007, do not create the equations with the default equation editor but use the Microsoft equation editor or MathType instead.
Save your file in doc format. Do not submit docx files.
Word template

Manuscripts with mathematical content can also be submitted in LaTeX.
LaTeX macro package

Headings
Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.

Abbreviations
Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes
Footnotes can be used to give additional information, which may include the citation of a reference included in the reference list. They should not consist solely of a reference citation, and they should never include the bibliographic details of a reference. They should also not contain any figures or tables.
Footnotes to the text are numbered consecutively; those to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data). Footnotes to the title or the authors of the article are not given reference symbols. Always use footnotes instead of endnotes.

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

References
Citation
Cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:
Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Thompson 1990).
This result was later contradicted (Becker and Seligman 1996).
This effect has been widely studied (Abbott 1991; Barakat et al. 1995; Kelso and Smith 1998; Medvec et al. 1993).

Reference list
The list of references should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications and unpublished works should only be mentioned in the text. Do not use footnotes or endnotes as a substitute for a reference list.
Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last names of the first author of each work.

Journal article
Gamelin FX, Baquet G, Berthoin S, Thevenet D, Nourry C, Nottin S, Bosquet L (2009) Effect of high intensity intermittent training on heart rate variability in prepubescent children. Eur J Appl Physiol 105:731-738. doi: 10.1007/s00421-008-0955-8
Ideally, the names of all authors should be provided, but the usage of “et al” in long author lists will also be accepted:
Smith J, Jones M Jr, Houghton L et al (1999) Future of health insurance. N Engl J Med 965:325?329

Article by DOI
Slifka MK, Whitton JL (2000) Clinical implications of dysregulated cytokine production. J Mol Med. Doi:10.1007/s001090000086

Book
South J, Blass B (2001) The future of modern genomics. Blackwell, London

Book chapter
Brown B, Aaron M (2001) The politics of nature. In: Smith J (ed) The rise of modern genomics, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 230-257

Online document
Doe J (1999) Title of subordinate document. In: The dictionary of substances and their effects. Royal Society of Chemistry. Available via DIALOG. http://www.rsc.org/dose/title of subordinate document. Accessed 15 Jan 1999

Dissertation
Trent JW (1975) Experimental acute renal failure. Dissertation, University of California

Always use the standard abbreviation of a journal’s name according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see
www.issn.org/2-22661-LTWA-online.php

Tables
All tables are to be numbered using Arabic numerals.
Tables should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. For each table, please supply a table caption (title) explaining the components of the table. Identify any previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference at the end of the table caption. Footnotes to tables should be indicated by superscript lower-case letters (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included beneath the table body.

Artwork Guidelines
For the best quality final product, it is highly recommended that you submit all of your artwork “ photographs, line drawings, etc. “ in an electronic format. Your art will then be produced to the highest standards with the greatest accuracy to detail. The published work will directly reflect the quality of the artwork provided.

Electronic Figure Submission

Supply all figures electronically. Indicate what graphics program was used to create the artwork.  For vector graphics, the preferred format is EPS; for halftones, please use TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.  Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.
Name your figure files with “Fig” and the figure number, e.g., Fig1.eps.

Line Art

Definition: Black and white graphic with no shading.
Do not use faint lines and/or lettering and check that all lines and lettering within the figures are legible at final size. All lines should be at least 0.1 mm (0.3 pt) wide. Scanned line drawings and line drawings in bitmap format should have a minimum resolution of 1200 dpi. Vector graphics containing fonts must have the fonts embedded in the files.

Halftone Art
Definition: Photographs, drawings, or paintings with fine shading, etc.
If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within the figures themselves. Halftones should have a minimum resolution of 300 dpi.

Combination Art
Definition: a combination of halftone and line art, e.g., halftones containing line drawing, extensive lettering, color diagrams, etc. Combination artwork should have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi.

Color Art
Color art is free of charge for online publication. If black and white will be shown in the print version, make sure that the main information will still be visible. Many colors are not distinguishable from one another when converted to black and white. A simple way to check this is to make a xerographic copy to see if the necessary distinctions between the different colors are still apparent. If the figures will be printed in black and white, do not refer to color in the captions. Color illustrations should be submitted as RGB (8 bits per channel).

Figure Lettering
To add lettering, it is best to use Helvetica or Arial (sans serif fonts). Keep lettering consistently sized throughout your final-sized artwork, usually about 2?3 mm (8?12 pt). Variance of type size within an illustration should be minimal, e.g., do not use 8-pt type on an axis and 20-pt type for the axis label. Avoid effects such as shading, outline letters, etc. Do not include titles or captions within your illustrations.

Figure Numbering
All figures are to be numbered using Arabic numerals. Figures should always be cited in text in consecutive numerical order. Figure parts should be denoted by lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.). If an appendix appears in your article and it contains one or more figures, continue the consecutive numbering of the main text. Do not number the appendix figures, “A1, A2, A3, etc.” Figures in online appendices (Electronic Supplementary Material) should, however, be numbered separately.

Figure Captions
Each figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file. Figure captions begin with the term Fig. in bold type, followed by the figure number, also in bold type. No punctuation is to be included after the number, nor is any punctuation to be placed at the end of the caption. Identify all elements found in the figure in the figure caption; and use boxes, circles, etc., as coordinate points in graphs.
Identify previously published material by giving the original source in the form of a reference citation at the end of the figure caption.

Figure Placement and Size
When preparing your figures, size figures to fit in the column width. For most journals the figures should be 39 mm, 84 mm, 129 mm, or 174 mm wide and not higher than 234 mm. For books and book-sized journals, the figures should be 80 mm or 122 mm wide and not higher than 198 mm.

Permissions
If you include figures that have already been published elsewhere, you must obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format. Please be aware that some publishers do not grant electronic rights for free and that Springer will not be able to refund any costs that may have occurred to receive these permissions. In such cases, material from other sources should be used.