Submission of a manuscript implies: that the work described has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as – tacitly or explicitly – by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out. Transfer of copyright to Springer-Verlag becomes effective if and when the article is accepted for publication. The copyright covers the exclusive right (for U.S. government employees: to the extent transferable) to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, translations, photographic reproductions, microform, electronic form (offline, online) or other reproductions of similar nature.
All articles published in this journal are protected by copyright, which covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article (e.g., as offprints), as well as all translation rights. No material published in this journal may be reproduced photographically or stored on microfilm, in electronic data bases, video disks, etc., without first obtaining written permission from the publisher. The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc., in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations.
An author may make his/her article published by Springer-Verlag available on his/her personal home page, provided the source of the published article is cited and Springer-Verlag is mentioned as the copyright owner. Authors are requested to create a link to the published article in Springer’s internet service. The link must be accompanied by the following text: ”The original publication is available at http://link.springer.de or at http://link.springer-ny.com”.
Please use the appropriate URL and/or DOI for the article. Articles disseminated via SpringerLink are indexed, abstracted and referenced by many abstracting and information services, bibliographic networks, subscription agencies, library networks, and consortia.
While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
Special regulations for photocopies in the USA. Photocopies may be made for personal or in-house use beyond the limitations stipulated under Section 107 or 108 of U.S. Copyright Law, provided a fee is paid. All fees should be paid to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 21 Congress Street, Salem, MA 01970, USA, stating the ISSN XXX, the volume, and the first and last page numbers of each article copied. The copyright owner’s consent does not include copying for general distribution, promotion, new works, or resale. In these cases, specific written permission must first be obtained from the publisher.
The Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (CISTI) provides a comprehensive, world-wide document delivery service for all Springer-Verlag journals. For more information, or to place an order for a copyright-cleared Springer-Verlag document, please contact Client Assistant, Document Delivery, CISTI, Ottawa K1A 0S2, Canada (Tel. +1-613-9939251, Fax +1-613-9528243, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).